Category: Philippines

Category: Philippines

Youth Leaders Demand Action: Analysis of the Third UN Security Council Resolution on Youth, Peace and Security

Youth Leaders Demand Action: Analysis of the Third UN Security Council Resolution on Youth, Peace and Security

July 17, 2020 by Katrina Leclerc

“Coming from a community where youth continue to experience violence, discrimination, limited political inclusion, and are at the brink of losing trust in the government systems, the adoption of UNSCR 2535 is a breath of hope and life to us. There’s nothing more empowering than being recognized, meaningfully included, supported, and given the agency to help build a present and future where we, the youth, are seen as equals across different decision-making tables.” – Lynrose Jane Genon, Young Woman Leader in the Philippines

On July 14, 2020, the United Nations Security Council adopted its third resolution on Youth, Peace and Security (YPS), co-sponsored by France and the Dominican Republic. Resolution 2535 (2020) aims to accelerate and strengthen the implementation of the YPS resolutions by:

  • institutionalizing the agenda within the UN system and establishing a 2-year reporting mechanism;
  • calling for system-wide protection of youth peacebuilders and activists;
  • emphasizing the urgency of the meaningful participation of youth peacebuilders in decision-making on humanitarian response; and
  • recognizing the synergies between the anniversaries of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (women, peace and security), the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and the 5th anniversary of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Some of the key strengths of UNSCR 2535 build on the persistent work and advocacy of civil society groups, including the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP). As we welcome the new resolution, we look forward to their effective implementation!

Intersectionality

A highlight of the resolution is that it emphasizes the intersectionality of the YPS agenda and recognizes that youth are not a uniform group, calling for “protection of all youth, particularly young women, refugees and internally displaced youth in armed conflict and post-conflict and their participation in peace processes.” GNWP has been advocating for, and implementing, intersectional approaches to peace and security for over a decade. We believe that to build sustainable peace, it is necessary to address cumulative barriers that different people and groups face based on their gender, sex, race, (dis)ability, social and economic status, and other factors.

Removing barriers to participation

In practice, intersectionality means recognizing and removing barriers to participation in peacebuilding processes – including conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and post-conflict reconstruction. Such barriers are outlined throughout UNSCR 2535, which calls for comprehensive approaches to peacebuilding and sustaining peace by addressing root causes to conflict.

This is particularly important because structural barriers still limit the participation and capacity of youth, particularly young women. GNWP’s Young Women Leaders (YWL) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experience first-hand the “insufficient investment in facilitating inclusion.” For example, in the province of North Kivu, young women have created and run micro-businesses for two and a half years providing them with small revenues to sustain their field work and modest personal expenses. Despite the low income of their micro-businesses, and the fact that they invest all profits into initiatives that benefit their communities, local authorities have been imposing seemingly arbitrary ‘taxes’ on the young women – without documentation or justification. This has hindered their capacity for growth and economic development as many have found that these ‘taxes’ were not proportionally adjusted to their small revenue. It has also impeded their ability to reinvest their small profits to support their peacebuilding initiatives.

The recognition by UNSCR 2535 of the complex and multi-layered barriers to youth participation is important to ensure unjust and burdensome practices, imposed to young people and particularly to young women, are eliminated. Supportive systems must be prioritized to ensure the success of local youth initiatives who contribute to the overall progress and good of societies.

Young people and preventing violent extremism

The resolution also recognizes the role of young people in counter-terrorism and preventing violent extremism (PVE). GNWP’s Young Women Leaders for Peace are an example of youth leadership on PVE. In Indonesia, YWL are using education and advocacy to tackle radicalization of young women. In the provinces of Poso and Lamongan, where the YWL operate, they work to prevent and counter violent extremism by addressing the root causes within a human security framework.

Call for WPS and YPS synergies

The resolution calls on Member States to recognize and promote synergies between the Women, Peace and Security (WPS); and Youth, Peace and Security agendas – including the 20th Anniversary of UNSCR 1325 (women, peace and security) and the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action.

Civil society, particularly women and youth peacebuilders, have long called for greater synergies between WPS and YPS agendas as many of the barriers and challenges faced by women and youth are part of the same exclusionary cultures. The discrimination, marginalization and violence girls and young women experience often continue to adulthood, unless enabling conditions are created for their empowerment. On the other hand, girls and young women who have strong support from family, school and other social institutions are better equipped to realize their full potentials as adults.

GNWP has taken this call for stronger synergies between WPS and YPS in the processes around the Generation Equality Forum (GEF) through its advocacy for an Action Coalition on WPS and YPS. This advocacy was recognized by the Core Group of the GEF with the development of the Compact Coalition on Women, Peace and Security and Humanitarian Action within the Beijing+25 review process. While the name of the Compact does not include YPS, the inclusion of young women in decision-making has been highlighted in the Compact’s concept note.

Role of youth in humanitarian response

The resolution recognizes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young people as well as the role they take in responding to this health crisis. It calls on policy-makers and stakeholders to guarantee meaningful youth engagement in humanitarian planning and response as essential to improve the effectiveness of humanitarian assistance.

Young people have been at the forefront of the COVID-19 pandemic response, providing lifesaving support in local communities gravely affected and vulnerable to the health crisis. For example, GNWP’s Young Women Leaders in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, DRC, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines and South Sudan have been providing relief support and information dissemination to promote safe precautionary measures and counter ‘fake news’ within social media. In the Philippines, YWL have distributed ‘dignity kits’ to local communities to ensure the health and safety of vulnerable individuals and families who have been further isolated by the pandemic.

Protection of young activists and support to survivors

Historically, the resolution recognizes the need to protect the civic space of youth peacebuilders and activists – including the important need for explicit protections of human rights defenders. It also calls on Member States to provide “access to quality education, socio-economic support and skills development such as vocational training, to resume social and economic life” to survivors of armed conflict and survivors of sexual violence.

The experience of the Young Women Leaders in DRC has emphasized both the importance of multi-faceted and survivor-centered response to sexual violence, as well as the key roles of youth peacebuilders in addressing impacts of conflict. The young women peacebuilders are supporting survivors of sexual violence by providing psychological and moral support to survivors. Through awareness-raising and collaboration with local partners on the ground they have begun to shift the narrative from victim to survivor, important progress for the stigmatization and agency of young women. However, speaking out about this sensitive issue can put them at risk – therefore, it is essential to ensure adequate protections for young women activists.

Implementation and accountability mechanism

The UNSCR 2535 is also the most action-oriented of the YPS resolutions. It includes specific encouragement to Member States to develop and implement roadmaps on youth, peace and security – with dedicated and sufficient resources. These resources should be intersectional and realistic. This echoes GNWP’s long-standing advocacy for adequate resources to support peacebuilding led by women, including young women. Far too often, roadmaps and action plans are developed without dedicated budgets, which limits the implementation of the agenda and meaningful participation of young people in sustaining peace. Furthermore, the resolution encourages dedicated funding for youth-led and youth-focused organizations, and emphasizes the institutionalization of the YPS agenda within the UN. This will eliminate additional barriers faced by young people as they are often in precarious work and disadvantaged economically. Young people are expected to provide their skills and experiences as volunteers, which further increases the economic divide and forces many to remain or to live in poverty.

Young people have a role to play in sustaining peace and economic well-being of societies. Thus, it is crucial that they be included in all aspects of design, implementation, and monitoring of economic-focused opportunities and initiatives; especially, now within the context of the COVID-19 global pandemic which has created additional disparities and burdens in the state of the world’s economy. The adoption of UNSCR 2535 is an important step towards guaranteeing that. Now – on to the implementation!


GNWP is having ongoing conversations with Young Women Leaders around the world on the relevance of UNSCR 2535 and other YPS resolutions. This is their views:

“UNSCR2535 is relevant both in our communities and globally because it reinforces the importance of youth’s meaningful participation in creating a just and humane society. Given that our country has passed the Anti-Terrorism Law recently, this resolution can also be a protective mechanism for youth activists engaged in different advocacies such as peacebuilding, protecting human rights and ensuring due process.” – Sophia Dianne Garcia, Young Woman Leader in the Philippines

“Coming from a community where youth continue to experience violence, discrimination, limited political inclusion, and are at the brink of losing trust in the government systems, the adoption of UNSCR 2535 is a breath of hope and life to us. There’s nothing more empowering than being recognized, meaningfully included, supported, and given the agency to help build a present and future where we, the youth, are seen as equals across different decision-making tables.” – Lynrose Jane Genon, Young Woman Leader in the Philippines

“As a worker in the local government unit, I think we need to engage the youth throughout this peacebuilding process. Engaging the youth means recognizing us, as one of the political actors that can influence decisions. And those decisions will affect us eventually. We don’t want to be ignored. And at worst, be wasted. Participation, hence is empowerment. And that’s important.” – Cynth Zephanee Nakila Nietes, Young Woman Leader in the Philippines

“As UNSCR 2535 (2020) does not only recognize the specific situation of young people, but also leverages their role and potential for preventing conflicts, building peaceful and inclusive societies and effectively addressing humanitarian needs. That can be attained by strengthening the role of young peacebuilders, especially women, engaging youth in humanitarian response, inviting youth organizations to brief the Council, and considering the specific situation of youth in the organ’s deliberations and actions that all are needed at this age in everyone’s community.” – Shazia Ahmadi, Young Woman Leader in Afghanistan

“In my opinion, this is very relevant. Because as a member of the younger generation, especially in our region, we want to be able to participate with the guarantee of protection. So, with that, we can also be taken into account in efforts to maintain peace itself even in making decisions and other matters relating to peace and humanity.” – Jeba, Young Woman Leader in Indonesia

Solidarity & Peace Amidst the Pandemic: Young Women Leaders Meet Online for the First-Ever Global Dialogue

Solidarity & Peace Amidst the Pandemic: Young Women Leaders Meet Online for the First-Ever Global Dialogue

April 23, 2020 by Heela Yoon and Katrina Leclerc

Edited by Mavic Cabrera-Balleza and Agnieszka Fal Dutra-Santos

“Afghan women have been fighting for their right to be meaningfully included in the peace process with the Taliban throughout the past 20 years. Today, we are afraid that amidst the COVID-19 crisis, this progress will be lost, and provisions on women rights will be removed from the peace agreement.” This concern, shared by Sadaf Tahib, the Communication Associate of Afghan Women Welfare and Development Association (AWWDA), was echoed by many of over 50 youth peacebuilders from 11 countries, who came together in an online meeting to share their experiences of preventing conflict and violent extremism, building peace, and addressing the COVID-19 outbreak in their communities.

The meeting was organized by the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP), with support from NAMA Women Advancement Establishment, on April 15, 2020. It was the first-time members of GNWP’s Young Women Leaders for Peace (YWL) program from Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, the Philippines, and South Sudan, came together. They were joined by women and youth leaders from Afghanistan, Georgia, Kenya, Lebanon, Myanmar, and Ukraine. By discussing the peace and security problems and the solutions to them amidst the pandemic and despite network connectivity issues, the women and youth peacebuilders sent a powerful message: COVID-19 will not stop us!

The event was also an opportunity to launch the Toolkit and Film for Young Women and Girls on Literacy, Leadership, Economic Empowerment, Media, and Theater. The toolkit and film are evidence-based, context-specific resources for elevating the voices and work of young women in preventing conflict and violent extremism drawn from GNWP’s work. They were developed based on the experiences of young women peacebuilders in Bangladesh and Indonesia, and good practices drawn from GNWP’s work around the world.

As the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic grows including the aggravated levels of personal anxiety and stress, the women and peacebuilders underscored the need to hold regular discussions and continue supporting each other. Members of the YWL shared their frontline initiatives to reduce the negative impacts of COVID-19 on women and youth peacebuilders. This is showcased in the new podcast ‘GNWP Talks Women, Peace and Security’: Episode 25 on the Young Women Leaders Global Dialogue.

Young women’s frontline leadership

Speaking from Bangladesh, Young Women Leaders Machen Hia and Mathenu Rakhine, shared that they joined the YWL program to “make sure that there is peace and gender equality in [their] community in Cox’s Bazar.” They emphasized that there is still a lot of challenges, and highlighted their contributions to improving the gender sensitivity of humanitarian emergency response to the influx of 1.3 million Rohingya refugees in Cox’s Bazar. They also shared their experience pre-COVID of conducting gender-sensitive, age-appropriate fundamental literacy and numeracy classes to Rohingya refugee and host community women and girls.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Young Women Leaders are workingto prevent, support and counter increased sexualized violence during the pandemic. During the meeting, Emilie Katondolo and Nicole Musimbi, shared that this work includes using media and technology to dismantle and challenge narratives of ‘victims’ to ‘survivors’ of sexual violence, and ensuring accurate and updated information is provided to women and youth across the communities of Eastern DRC. “Through our program, we try to provide women with opportunities to make income, so that they can improve their financial situation and change their life,” said Nicole.

In Indonesia, Young Women Leaders for Peace, conduct community-level advocacy on women’s rights; gender equality; youth, peace and security (YPS); and human security. Prior to COVID-19, young women have held advocacy meetings in their communities and have developed strong relationships with district-level leaders. Nur Aisyah Maullidah, Ilmiyah Maslahatul and Ririn Anggraeni, shared that since the COVID-19 outbreak, the YWL Indonesia have held online English classes to continue their capacity-building amidst the pandemic.

In the Philippines, Young Women Leaders are also at the forefront of COVID-19 response. Sophia Garcia and Lynrose Genon, presented that young women are distributing face masks, disinfectants, and ‘dignity kits’ to ensure that the specific needs of women and girls are met. These kits are prepared by YWL members and distributed to internally displaced women and youth in Sagonsongan Transitional Temporary Shelter in Marawi, a city ravaged by armed conflict between extremist groups and the Philippine Armed Forces.

Speaking from South Sudan, Elizabeth Biniya, a member ofYoung Women Leaders, and Nyuon Susan Sebit, former Cora Weiss Peacebuilding Fellow at GNWP, discussed their efforts in addressing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on local populations. The South Sudanese young women leaders are using community radio to raise awareness of domestic violence and the available support for those affected. They also disseminate information on preventive measures such as hand washing and social distancing. Additionally, the South Sudanese Young Women Leaders organize theater performances in Torit, South Sudan to raise awareness on women’s rights, gender equality, and peace and security among local populations.

In today’s complex and interconnected world, it is important to recognize and promote the synergies between the women and peace and security (WPS) and youth and peace and security (YPS) agendas and how they are linked to humanitarian emergencies. This is highlighted during this global COVID-19 pandemic as we see young women peacebuilders who step up and become first responders in their local communities. In doing so, they not only mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 crisis but they also secure the gains of Afghan women and all other women and youth peacebuilders who have been demanding to meaningfully participate in peace processes and all levels of decision-making.

Want to support young women leading on the frontline of the COVID-19 pandemic? Share and donate here.

GNWP is grateful for the support of NAMA Women Advancement Establishment; and the collaboration of the Asian Muslim Action Network – Indonesia and Jago Nari Unnayon Sangsta – Bangladesh for the production of the Toolkit and Film.

Please see also other articles produced by the GNWP on COVID-19 and the women and peace and security, and youth and peace and security agendas:

Charting a Feminist Present and Future: Young Women for Peace and Leadership Program Recognized by the United Nations Secretary-General in Report to Security Council on UNSCR 2250

From DRC to Indonesia, from Bangladesh to South Sudan, young women defy gender and age stereotypes and act as leaders, peacebuilders and agents of change in their communities. They are first responders in humanitarian crises, prevent recruitment by violent groups by building a culture of peace, and set up small businesses to increase their financial independence and support their families. In the absence of formal mechanisms and opportunities to meaningfully participate in peace processes and social, political and economic life, young women have forged their own avenues to lead peacebuilding efforts and movements for progressive social transformation.

When Warring Parties Abandon Peace Negotiations: Lessons from Peacebuilding Efforts Led by Local Women in Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Sur, Philippines

September 19, 2019 by Mallika Iyer
Edited by Mavic Cabrera-Balleza
 
“What do you do when the warring parties have left the negotiating table?” was the question on every participant’s mind during a capacity building workshop and writeshop conducted by the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP), in partnership with the Center for Peace Education at Miriam College and Balay Mindanaw, between August 5th and 9th, 2019 in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte.
 
In 2018, the Philippine government announced the termination of its negotiations with the Communist Party of the Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front (CPP-NPA-NDF), after repeated failed attempts to come to an agreement over the past 33 years. The armed conflict between the CPP-NPA-NDF and the government of the Philippines has spanned over five decades, devastating rural regions across the country and resulting in large numbers of internally displaced persons, loss of lives, damage to property, widespread insecurity, martial law declared by Ferdinand Marcos Sr., and the widespread violation of human rights.
 
Prior to the announcement of the termination of peace negotiations with CPP-NPA-NDF, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Executive Order 70, which calls for “localized peace talks” between local government units and the local command structures of the CPP-NPA-NDF.”[1] This is now the government’s primary approach to eradicate insurgency beginning in local communities.
 
peace worker based in Mindanao says Executive Order 70 is a one-sided attempt at a peace process led by the government with very limited—if any—support and ownership from the CPP-NPA-NDF, which still calls for the resumption of official peace negotiations. The CPP-NPA-NDF leadership has vocalized misgivings and opposition to Executive Order 70, describing it as a “cynical ploy by the Duterte administration to divide, conquer, and delegitimize”[2] and a “worn-out psywar tactic to project victory to conceal the continuing failure of the Armed Forces of the Philippines to suppress the people’s resistance and stem the steady growth of the NPA.”[3] With the warring parties at odds over the approach and methodology which the peace process should adopt, the armed conflict continues with bleak prospects for ceasefire.
 
Local people should co-lead efforts in addressing the root causes of conflict 
 
The capacity building workshop and writeshop (writing workshop) organized by GNWP aimed to increase collective understanding and ownership amongst local populations in Kitcharao, Agusan del Norte and Lianga, Surigao del Sur, of the concrete actions necessary to address the root causes of the conflict and contribute to the attainment of inclusive and sustainable peace. Kitcharao, Agusan del Norte and Lianga, Surigao del Sur are home to large populations of Lumad (indigenous) people who are experiencing ongoing violence and insecurity as a result of the protracted conflict between the CPP-NPA-NDF and the government. The frequent skirmishes between the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the CPP-NPA-NDF have displaced over 3500 people in Lianga, Surigao del Sur since 2015.
 
The Lumad people’s education, properties, and security have been endangered because of violent confrontation between the CPP-NDF-NPA and the Philippine Army. Strong, organized groups of local women, Lumad, LGBTQIA+, youth, and other marginalized and vulnerable groups are essential in changing the militaristic narrative in which the armed conflict and peace process has been framed.
 
The capacity building workshop focused on analyzing the root causes of the conflict and designing initiatives to address them and bolster conflict resilience efforts in barangays (local communities). The participants stressed the importance of meeting the needs of women IDPs (internally displaced persons) through the establishment of women-friendly-spaces in evacuation centers and economic empowerment programs.
 
The writeshop (writing workshop) empowered local women in civil society, government, and the security sector to develop and advocate for gender-sensitive and inclusive local legislation and policies that support sustainable peace process at all levels. Provisions from the National Action Plan (NAP) on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on WomenPeace, and Security, and the Magna Carta of Women were integrated into Barangay Development Plans, the Municipal Executive Legislative Agenda, and Local and Municipal Gender and Development Codes. Furthermore, ordinances and resolutions advocating for the implementation of the Comprehensive Agreement on the Respect of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (CARHRIHL), the only agreement signed by the warring parties, were also drafted.
 
Local women from Kitcharao, Agusan del Norte and Lianga, Surigao del Sur will lead advocacy campaigns to ensure that these draft ordinances and resolutions are officially adopted and effectively implemented.
 
The capacity building workshop and writeshop in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte, Mindanao are part of a four-year project supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation aimed at building sustainable peace in the Philippines. A key component of this project is the enhancement of capacities of local women and other historically marginalized groups to meaningfully participate in the ongoing peace process with the Communist Party of the Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front and local implementation of the peace agreement with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.

From rebellion to governance: The establishment of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao and local women’s participation in it

From rebellion to governance: The establishment of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao and local women’s participation in it

August 27, 2019 by Mallika Iyer

Edited by Mavic Cabrera Balleza

After four decades of armed conflict, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Government of the Philippines signed a peace agreement that was later on enshrined into the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL). In January and February 2019, the BOL was ratified through plebiscites which established the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao and signaled the transition from rebellion to governance. The BOL contains provisions that guarantee the meaningful participation of women and other historically marginalized groups such as lumad (indigenous peoples) and youth in the Bangsamoro Cabinet. Building on this provision, the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP) facilitated workshops in North Cotabato, Mindanao on July 29 to August 01, 2019 to enhance the capacities of local women and other marginalized groups to meaningfully participate in the implementation of the BOL.

In partnership with the Center for Peace Education at Miriam College and Balay Mindanaw Foundation, GNWP organized the workshops in order to increase collective understanding and ownership of the BARMM and the concrete actions and policies necessary for the peaceful transition amongst local women’s rights groups, local government leaders, youth organizations, and indigenous leaders.  The capacity-building workshop highlighted the various roles played by municipal and barangay (village) level government units, the Bangsamoro Transition Authority, the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP), local police and armed forces, civil society, and media in the effective implementation of the BOL.

The participants consisted of representatives from the key stakeholders of the peace process including the Bangsamoro Transition Authority (BTA), the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP) Joint Normalization Committee, the Philippine National Police, the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Bangsamoro Women’s Auxiliary Brigade, municipal and local government, civil society, and the Department of Interior and Local Government. Through many discussions, the participants reached a consensus on one of the primary challenges and obstacles to the peaceful transition to the BARMM: the limited collective understanding of the inclusive and gender-sensitive provisions of the Bangsamoro Organic Law.

While there is general support for the peace process, the participants of the workshop from Aleosan, North Cotabato voiced concerns and uncertainty on how the transition of the BARMM will unfold and impact their daily lives including the Internal Revenue Allotments—the financial subsidy that local governments receive from the national government; the decommissioning of ex-combatants, and the applicability of Sharia law. Due to lack of information dissemination and awareness-raising efforts, there is a high prevalence of misinformation and disinformation on the BOL. This results in distrust, fear, uncertainty, and ultimately, limited support for its implementation.

The local leaders also participated in a writeshop (writing workshop) to draft gender-sensitive and inclusive local legislation and policies that support the implementation of the BOL in Aleosan, North Cotabato. Provisions from the National Action Plan (NAP) on the United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, and the Magna Carta of women were integrated into existing local legislation such as the Municipal Gender and Development Code and Local Development Plan to better respond to the impact of the armed conflict on local women and other marginalized groups. Ordinances to support the NAP on UNSCR 1325 and the implementation of the BOL by BARMM and non-BARMM barangays (villages) were drafted too. The participants also drafted ordinances establishing an economic empowerment program and a technical working group to address the needs of former women combatants and survivors of gender-based violence.

The leadership of local women in Aleosan, North Cotabato, as champions of peace is essential to transform the narrative of armed conflict into peaceful and effective governance. Strong local ownership of and active participation in the implementation of the BOL will bolster and support a peaceful, inclusive, and sustainable transition to the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao.

The capacity-building workshop and writeshop in Aleosan, North Cotabato, Mindanao are part of a four-year project supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation aimed at building sustainable peace in the Philippines. A key component of this project is the enhancement of capacities of local women and other historically marginalized groups to meaningfully participate in the ongoing peace process with the Communist Party of the Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front and local implementation of the peace agreement with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.