Month: September 2019

Month: September 2019

When Warring Parties Abandon Peace Negotiations: Lessons from Peacebuilding Efforts Led by Local Women in Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Sur, Philippines

September 19, 2019 by Mallika Iyer
Edited by Mavic Cabrera-Balleza
“What do you do when the warring parties have left the negotiating table?” was the question on every participant’s mind during a capacity building workshop and writeshop conducted by the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders (GNWP), in partnership with the Center for Peace Education at Miriam College and Balay Mindanaw, between August 5th and 9th, 2019 in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte.
In 2018, the Philippine government announced the termination of its negotiations with the Communist Party of the Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front (CPP-NPA-NDF), after repeated failed attempts to come to an agreement over the past 33 years. The armed conflict between the CPP-NPA-NDF and the government of the Philippines has spanned over five decades, devastating rural regions across the country and resulting in large numbers of internally displaced persons, loss of lives, damage to property, widespread insecurity, martial law declared by Ferdinand Marcos Sr., and the widespread violation of human rights.
Prior to the announcement of the termination of peace negotiations with CPP-NPA-NDF, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Executive Order 70, which calls for “localized peace talks” between local government units and the local command structures of the CPP-NPA-NDF.”[1] This is now the government’s primary approach to eradicate insurgency beginning in local communities.
peace worker based in Mindanao says Executive Order 70 is a one-sided attempt at a peace process led by the government with very limited—if any—support and ownership from the CPP-NPA-NDF, which still calls for the resumption of official peace negotiations. The CPP-NPA-NDF leadership has vocalized misgivings and opposition to Executive Order 70, describing it as a “cynical ploy by the Duterte administration to divide, conquer, and delegitimize”[2] and a “worn-out psywar tactic to project victory to conceal the continuing failure of the Armed Forces of the Philippines to suppress the people’s resistance and stem the steady growth of the NPA.”[3] With the warring parties at odds over the approach and methodology which the peace process should adopt, the armed conflict continues with bleak prospects for ceasefire.
Local people should co-lead efforts in addressing the root causes of conflict 
The capacity building workshop and writeshop (writing workshop) organized by GNWP aimed to increase collective understanding and ownership amongst local populations in Kitcharao, Agusan del Norte and Lianga, Surigao del Sur, of the concrete actions necessary to address the root causes of the conflict and contribute to the attainment of inclusive and sustainable peace. Kitcharao, Agusan del Norte and Lianga, Surigao del Sur are home to large populations of Lumad (indigenous) people who are experiencing ongoing violence and insecurity as a result of the protracted conflict between the CPP-NPA-NDF and the government. The frequent skirmishes between the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the CPP-NPA-NDF have displaced over 3500 people in Lianga, Surigao del Sur since 2015.
The Lumad people’s education, properties, and security have been endangered because of violent confrontation between the CPP-NDF-NPA and the Philippine Army. Strong, organized groups of local women, Lumad, LGBTQIA+, youth, and other marginalized and vulnerable groups are essential in changing the militaristic narrative in which the armed conflict and peace process has been framed.
The capacity building workshop focused on analyzing the root causes of the conflict and designing initiatives to address them and bolster conflict resilience efforts in barangays (local communities). The participants stressed the importance of meeting the needs of women IDPs (internally displaced persons) through the establishment of women-friendly-spaces in evacuation centers and economic empowerment programs.
The writeshop (writing workshop) empowered local women in civil society, government, and the security sector to develop and advocate for gender-sensitive and inclusive local legislation and policies that support sustainable peace process at all levels. Provisions from the National Action Plan (NAP) on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on WomenPeace, and Security, and the Magna Carta of Women were integrated into Barangay Development Plans, the Municipal Executive Legislative Agenda, and Local and Municipal Gender and Development Codes. Furthermore, ordinances and resolutions advocating for the implementation of the Comprehensive Agreement on the Respect of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (CARHRIHL), the only agreement signed by the warring parties, were also drafted.
Local women from Kitcharao, Agusan del Norte and Lianga, Surigao del Sur will lead advocacy campaigns to ensure that these draft ordinances and resolutions are officially adopted and effectively implemented.
The capacity building workshop and writeshop in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte, Mindanao are part of a four-year project supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation aimed at building sustainable peace in the Philippines. A key component of this project is the enhancement of capacities of local women and other historically marginalized groups to meaningfully participate in the ongoing peace process with the Communist Party of the Philippines-New People’s Army-National Democratic Front and local implementation of the peace agreement with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.

Failing justice systems – women and girls are victims of the systems designed to protect them

Failing justice systems – women and girls are victims of the systems designed to protect them

September 16, 2019 by Eliza Beckerman-Lee

Edited by Katrina Leclerc


Cyntoia Brown was 16 years old when she received her life sentence by the United States justice system, on August 7th, 2019 at age 31, she walked free after spending the last 15 years – her entire young adulthood – behind bars.

In 2006, Brown was convicted of aggravated robbery and first-degree murder for killing Johnny Allen, a Tennessee real-estate agent who had picked Cyntoia up at a Sonic restaurant and taken her home to have intercourse. The sentencing laws in Tennessee allow for minors tried as adults to be sentenced to life in prison and only eligible for parole after serving a minimum of 51 years – the longest minimum sentencing in the country. Cyntoia’s case received international attention that eventually led to her clemency, granted by then-Governor Bill Haslam, as the #MeToo movement highlighted stories of women and girls who were survivors of gender-based sexual violence in the US. These stories emphasized how young women are victims themselves in such situations, despite being prosecuted as criminals.

At the age of 16, Brown was forced into prostitution by her then-boyfriend, a man called “Cut Throat.” Brown was still a minor when Johnny Allen picked her up outside a Sonic restaurant and took her home where he proceeded to show off his gun collection. Cyntoia has never denied killing Johnny Allen; she even stated at a 2018 hearing that “Johnny Allen’s life mattered,”[1] but the circumstances of her case expose the harsh reality that young women, especially women of color, who are victims of sex trafficking and gender-based violence do not have access to equal justice. The current narrative places blame on women and girls alone, framing them as criminals instead of victims in their own right.

While incarcerated, Brown started on a more positive path, earning post-secondary degrees and assuming the role of both a mentor and advocate for women in prison. Brown became a champion for education in prisons and encouraged others to pursue higher education while inside, whether or not they were getting out or sentenced to life like herself.

Cyntoia Brown’s story is a major triumph but reveals the overwhelming reality… the United States has a lot farther to go in ensuring that victims of gender-based sexual violence have access to justice. Brown’s story is more the norm than the exception; take Ashlee Sellars for example, a woman who befriended Brown while the two were incarcerated together. Sellars was sentenced to prison when she was just 17 years old and served more than 21 years before her eventual release from the Tennessee Prison for Women at age 38. Since her release, Sellars has committed her life outside of prison to working with Restorative Justice programs.

It’s not just the forcing of women into prostitution that strips them of their freedoms, but the institutionalized persecution and oppression by the justice systems that further marginalizes young women and girls. Instead of seeing these women as survivors of sexual violence, the system frames victimized women as criminals and funnels them into prison. While we often think of sex trafficking cases like the Iraqi Yazidis, the United States also has many gaps in accountability and lacks a survivor-centered approach to justice for victims of sexual violence.

In 2013, the World Health Organization wrote “when more than one in three women worldwide (35.6%) have reported having experienced sexual or physical violence, then violence against women evidently “pervades all corners of the globe’” and national studies show that gender-based violence affects “35 to 70 percent of women and girls globally”. Despite these pandemic proportions, “the majority of women…subjected to gender-based violence do not seek justice…because they fear further violence and/or have no confidence in the justice system,”[2] which is why effort must be put into drafting and promoting legislation that seeks justice for survivors of gender-based sexual violence instead of sending them to prison.

The United Nations Security Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security reminds us that sustaining peace is only possible if we include women in policy decisions and consider their specific needs in order to address them on a global scale. Women and girls who are survivors of gender-based sexual violence as well as those incarcerated or formerly incarcerated need to be at the table leading these conversations in order to change cultural narratives. Studies also show Restorative Justice programs to reduce recidivism rates by 3%[3] and unlike punitive policing, they help women and girls become positive contributors to society and reclaim their space as survivors, not victims. Moreover, there can only be true justice when the perpetrators of sexual violence are the ones being held accountable.

[1] Timms, Mariah. “Cyntoia Brown’s Release Is Only the Start of Her Transition Back into Society. Just Ask Ashlee Sellars.” The Tennessean, Nashville Tennessean, 6 Aug. 2019,

[2] Gormley, Lisa, et al. “Women’s Access to Justice for Gender-Based Violence.” The International Commission of Jurists, 2016.

[3] Bonta, James. “RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AND RECIDIVISM.” Ontario, Jan. 2003.